Plural is indicated by a change of class, with a resulting change of prefix. According to Steven Pinkerthe Kivunjo language has 16 noun classes including classes for precise locations and for general locales, classes for clusters or pairs of objects and classes for the objects that come in pairs or clusters, and classes for abstract qualities.
In contrast, there are some words in some of the languages in which reduplication has the opposite meaning. The aim of this study is to illustrate the mixed character of Silozi in the noun class system and the kinship term, thus aiding the better understanding of Silozi. Sesotho tonology Except for class 2a, the prefixes of the non-locative classes are null "low" toned, while the set of possible tone patterns for the stem is large and obviously dependent on its length.
Ha ku na sico mwa nahathere is no food in the land.
Algonquian languages[ edit ] The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes.
The prefix is formed by adding di- to the full class 9 noun or adding di10408- to the class 5 noun stem. Ku na ni batu ba banwi mwa munzi, there are some people in the village. What follows is only a brief and incomplete overview.
U ni anyize lubaka, he gave me a violent slap. The very alien phonetics and phonologies of these languages mean that words are to be imported rather irregularly with varying phonetic transformations.
In all other cases, there is no prefix. We sat up the whole night till dawn.
Many nouns can be derived from other nouns, usually through the use of suffixes. Mu atule taba ye, judge this case, der. Masenge a ndu ya ka a benya, the tin roof of my house is shining. Ku amuhela muenyi, to welcome a guest. The noun classes14 and 15 of Silozi are shared with Sesotho but the use has been modified due to contact with Siluyana.
Atameza mukuli ku mualafi, bring the patient near the i doctor. Note that the use of dashes to separate their parts is also irregular and usually based on the popularity and utility of the noun, and the Lesotho and South African orthographies tend to differ with the Lesotho orthography tending to prefer dashes more.
U sike wa ni akulela, do not breathe on me. They typically involve 20 or more classifiers separate lexemes that co-occur with the noun. Ki yena ya anda-mezi situlo sa ndat'ahe, he is the one likely to succeed his father.
Sesotho concords Every part of speech in Sesotho which is somehow connected with a noun either by qualifying it, associating it with an action or state, or standing in its place in an utterance needs to be brought into agreement with the noun.
Noun Classes 11 to 13, and 19 to 23 do not occur in Sesotho, but do occur in other Bantu languages (isiZulu has class 11, Silozi has Classes 11, 12, and 13, etc.). Each basic noun in Sesotho has an inherent prefix (even if that prefix is a null prefix: segmentally empty).
The most prominent grammatical characteristic of Bantu languages is the extensive use of affixes (see Sotho grammar and Ganda noun classes for detailed discussions of these affixes). Each noun belongs to a class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like grammatical gender in European languages.
Silozi-English dictionary This dictionary is contained in five files: A-K; L; M; N-P; S-Z. A.
A. a, pronounced a as in fat. a, hort. part.: liseli a li be teni, let. May 27, · The other half of the noun classes are not meaningful semantic groups—the nouns within these classes don’t have a whole lot in common.
“Agreement” among nouns, verbs, and adjectives is the key to the Swahili language, and noun classes themselves determine that agreement. Some restrictions on Sesotho null noun class prefixes* Malillo Machobane, Francina Moloi It is less common in other related languages such as SiLozi, which belongs to the where the noun classes in the Grassfields Bantu Borderland are examined.
Dembetembe. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns.
Classes 6 and 10 are inherited as polyplural classes by most.Noun classes of silozi